How Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Chips are Made – Dummies Guide

Czochralski Process of Making Pure Polysilicon Crystal Ignot

Basic building blocks for integrated circuits (IC), very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI) And ultra large scale integrated circuits (ULSI) are diodes and transistors. Large numbers of this diodes and transistors are fabricated together in a tiny piece of silicon wafer to make the IC/VLSIC/ULSICs. Semiconductor Integrated Circuit (IC) Manufacturing Process Let’s assume we have …

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Basic Physics of Semiconductor Devices – Simplified

Silicon Crystal Structure

    What is semiconductor? Semiconductor is the basic building block for modern day electronics. As the name suggest, the conductivity of semiconductor is in between that of metallic conductor and non-metallic insulator.   Any electronic components made up using semiconductor is called semiconductor devices. Diodes, transistors are basic semiconductor devices. Integrated Circuits (ICs), Very …

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6 Important Codes and Standards for Mechanical Design Engineers

ASME Y 14.5 GD&T Standard

As a design engineer, you must at least know the following few national and international codes and standards of mechanical engineering, if not more:   ASME Y 14.5 American Society of Mechanical Engineer or ASME Y 14.5 is most widely accepted Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) standard code for the mechanical engineering professionals and students. …

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6 Steps for Tolerance Calculation of Shaft Drawing with Din ISO 286 IT Grades and Fundamental Deviation Symbol

Fig.1: Typical Shaft Drawing Showing ISO 286 Tolerance & FD Symbol

Do you feel uncomfortable reading those shaft drawings with diameter values followed by the symbols like h8 or g5?   These symbols are combination of fundamental or basic deviation symbol and tolerance grades IT numbers and follows DIN ISO 286 standard. How?   Side Note: ISO 286 standards is equivalent to other national standard like …

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DIN ISO 286 Standard Tolerance Zone Size Table for Different IT Grades and Nominal Size

Reading the drawings with fundamental deviation (FD) symbols (like g, h or G, H etc) and IT grades will require ISO FD table and DIN ISO 286 fundamental or standard tolerance table. By the way, the ISO 286 standard is equivalent to other national and international similar standards like JIS B 0401, BS EN 20286, …

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